There doesn't seem to be any affect from the patch in our environment with standard permission settings.
When I modify a site to remove "gradebook.gradeAll" permission from the instructor role (leaving the "gradebook.gradeSection" permission), instructors lose the ability to see the students (they can't be assigned to a section using the Sections tool, so they don't see any sections' students) or the gradebook structure in the gradebook == so they can't grade anyone. They do have the Import choice available on the Tools menu, but, although the import process starts, they get a message saying they aren't authorized to grade the students before the import completes.
When I go in as a TA (the role by definition has only the "gradebook.gradeSection" permission and not the "gradebook.gradeAll" permission), they can see and grade students if they have been assigned to a section in the Sections tool (or put in a group with students in manually created Group), but they don't have the Import option available on the Tools menu (oddly, they do have the export option). So they can't import grades for their sections' students.
I found that to get this to work, I also needed to adjust the section.role..... permissions for each role, as well as adjusting the gradebook.grade.... permissions.
"section.role.instructor" permission, when turned on, allows user to assign, as TAs to sections in the Sections tool, any role that has the "section.role.ta" permission turned on. It also allows the gradebook import function to be visible.
"section.role.ta" permission allows the user to be assigned to a section in the Sections tool.
"gradebook.gradeAll" permission allows the user to see all students in all sections; see the structure of the gradebook; export all students or selected sections from the gradebook; import spreadsheet of grades for all or a subset of students to the gradebook.
"gradebook.gradeSection" permission allows the user, when assigned to a section in the Sections tool, to see the gradebook structure, see the students in their assigned section(s), export a gradebook spreadsheet with their section(s)' students.
Since I can now adjust the permissions for to allow export and import of only individual section grades, which is what the patch was attempting to accomplish,